class ClassicalShadowMP(*args, seed=None, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: pennylane.measurements.measurements.MeasurementTransform

Represents a classical shadow measurement process occurring at the end of a quantum variational circuit.

Please refer to classical_shadow() for detailed documentation.

Parameters
 has_decomposition Whether or not the MeasurementProcess returns a defined decomposition when calling expand. hash returns an integer hash uniquely representing the measurement process numeric_type The Python numeric type of the measurement result. raw_wires The wires the measurement process acts on. return_type Measurement return type. samples_computational_basis Whether or not the MeasurementProcess measures in the computational basis. wires The wires the measurement process acts on.
has_decomposition

Whether or not the MeasurementProcess returns a defined decomposition when calling expand.

Type

Bool

hash

returns an integer hash uniquely representing the measurement process

Type

int

numeric_type
raw_wires

The wires the measurement process acts on.

For measurements involving more than one set of wires (such as mutual information), this is a list of the Wires objects. Otherwise, this is the same as wires()

return_type
samples_computational_basis
wires

The wires the measurement process acts on.

This is the union of all the Wires objects of the measurement.

 Returns the gates that diagonalize the measured wires such that they are in the eigenbasis of the circuit observables. Eigenvalues associated with the measurement process. Expand the measurement of an observable to a unitary rotation and a measurement in the computational basis. map_wires(wire_map) Returns a copy of the current measurement process with its wires changed according to the given wire map. process(tape, device) Returns the measured bits and recipes in the classical shadow protocol. queue([context]) Append the measurement process to an annotated queue. shape([device]) The expected output shape of the MeasurementProcess. Reduce the depth of the observable to the minimum.
diagonalizing_gates()

Returns the gates that diagonalize the measured wires such that they are in the eigenbasis of the circuit observables.

Returns

the operations that diagonalize the observables

Return type

List[Operation]

eigvals()

Eigenvalues associated with the measurement process.

If the measurement process has an associated observable, the eigenvalues will correspond to this observable. Otherwise, they will be the eigenvalues provided when the measurement process was instantiated.

Note that the eigenvalues are not guaranteed to be in any particular order.

Example:

>>> m = MeasurementProcess(Expectation, obs=qml.PauliX(wires=1))
>>> m.eigvals()
array([1, -1])

Returns

eigvals representation

Return type

array

expand()

Expand the measurement of an observable to a unitary rotation and a measurement in the computational basis.

Returns

a quantum tape containing the operations required to diagonalize the observable

Return type

QuantumTape

Example:

Consider a measurement process consisting of the expectation value of an Hermitian observable:

>>> H = np.array([[1, 2], [2, 4]])
>>> obs = qml.Hermitian(H, wires=['a'])
>>> m = MeasurementProcess(Expectation, obs=obs)


Expanding this out:

>>> tape = m.expand()


We can see that the resulting tape has the qubit unitary applied, and a measurement process with no observable, but the eigenvalues specified:

>>> print(tape.operations)
[QubitUnitary(array([[-0.89442719,  0.4472136 ],
[ 0.4472136 ,  0.89442719]]), wires=['a'])]
>>> print(tape.measurements[0].eigvals())
[0. 5.]
>>> print(tape.measurements[0].obs)
None

map_wires(wire_map)

Returns a copy of the current measurement process with its wires changed according to the given wire map.

Parameters

wire_map (dict) – dictionary containing the old wires as keys and the new wires as values

Returns

new measurement process

Return type

MeasurementProcess

process(tape, device)[source]

Returns the measured bits and recipes in the classical shadow protocol.

The protocol is described in detail in the classical shadows paper. This measurement process returns the randomized Pauli measurements (the recipes) that are performed for each qubit and snapshot as an integer:

• 0 for Pauli X,

• 1 for Pauli Y, and

• 2 for Pauli Z.

It also returns the measurement results (the bits); 0 if the 1 eigenvalue is sampled, and 1 if the -1 eigenvalue is sampled.

The device shots are used to specify the number of snapshots. If T is the number of shots and n is the number of qubits, then both the measured bits and the Pauli measurements have shape (T, n).

This implementation is device-agnostic and works by executing single-shot quantum tapes containing randomized Pauli observables. Devices should override this if they can offer cleaner or faster implementations.

Parameters
Returns

A tensor with shape (2, T, n), where the first row represents the measured bits and the second represents the recipes used.

Return type

tensor_like[int]

queue(context=<class 'pennylane.queuing.QueuingManager'>)

Append the measurement process to an annotated queue.

shape(device=None)[source]

The expected output shape of the MeasurementProcess.

Note that the output shape is dependent on the device when:

• The measurement type is either ProbabilityMP, StateMP (from state()) or SampleMP;

• The shot vector was defined in the device.

For example, assuming a device with shots=None, expectation values and variances define shape=(1,), whereas probabilities in the qubit model define shape=(1, 2**num_wires) where num_wires is the number of wires the measurement acts on.

Note that the shapes for vector-valued measurements such as ProbabilityMP and StateMP are adjusted to the output of qml.execute and may have an extra first element that is squeezed when using QNodes.

Parameters

device (pennylane.Device) – a PennyLane device to use for determining the shape

Returns

the output shape

Return type

tuple

Raises

QuantumFunctionError – the return type of the measurement process is unrecognized and cannot deduce the numeric type

simplify()

Reduce the depth of the observable to the minimum.

Returns

A measurement process with a simplified observable.

Return type

MeasurementProcess