Source code for pennylane.measurements.var

# Copyright 2018-2021 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.

# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at


# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# pylint: disable=protected-access
This module contains the qml.var measurement.
from typing import Sequence, Tuple, Union

import pennylane as qml
from pennylane.operation import Operator
from pennylane.wires import Wires

from .measurements import SampleMeasurement, StateMeasurement, Variance
from .sample import SampleMP
from .mid_measure import MeasurementValue

[docs]def var(op: Union[Operator, MeasurementValue]) -> "VarianceMP": r"""Variance of the supplied observable. Args: op (Union[Operator, MeasurementValue]): a quantum observable object. To get variances for mid-circuit measurements, ``op`` should be a ``MeasurementValue``. Returns: VarianceMP: Measurement process instance **Example:** .. code-block:: python3 dev = qml.device("default.qubit", wires=2) @qml.qnode(dev) def circuit(x): qml.RX(x, wires=0) qml.Hadamard(wires=1) qml.CNOT(wires=[0, 1]) return qml.var(qml.Y(0)) Executing this QNode: >>> circuit(0.5) 0.7701511529340698 """ if isinstance(op, MeasurementValue): return VarianceMP(obs=op) if isinstance(op, Sequence): raise ValueError( "qml.var does not support measuring sequences of measurements or observables" ) return VarianceMP(obs=op)
[docs]class VarianceMP(SampleMeasurement, StateMeasurement): """Measurement process that computes the variance of the supplied observable. Please refer to :func:`var` for detailed documentation. Args: obs (Union[.Operator, .MeasurementValue]): The observable that is to be measured as part of the measurement process. Not all measurement processes require observables (for example ``Probability``); this argument is optional. wires (.Wires): The wires the measurement process applies to. This can only be specified if an observable was not provided. eigvals (array): A flat array representing the eigenvalues of the measurement. This can only be specified if an observable was not provided. id (str): custom label given to a measurement instance, can be useful for some applications where the instance has to be identified """ @property def return_type(self): return Variance @property def numeric_type(self): return float
[docs] def shape(self, device, shots): if not shots.has_partitioned_shots: return () num_shot_elements = sum(s.copies for s in shots.shot_vector) return tuple(() for _ in range(num_shot_elements))
[docs] def process_samples( self, samples: Sequence[complex], wire_order: Wires, shot_range: Tuple[int] = None, bin_size: int = None, ): # estimate the variance op = if is not None else self.obs with qml.queuing.QueuingManager.stop_recording(): samples = SampleMP( obs=op, eigvals=self._eigvals, wires=self.wires if self._eigvals is not None else None, ).process_samples( samples=samples, wire_order=wire_order, shot_range=shot_range, bin_size=bin_size ) # With broadcasting, we want to take the variance over axis 1, which is the -1st/-2nd with/ # without bin_size. Without broadcasting, axis 0 is the -1st/-2nd with/without bin_size axis = -1 if bin_size is None else -2 # TODO: do we need to squeeze here? Maybe remove with new return types return qml.math.squeeze(qml.math.var(samples, axis=axis))
[docs] def process_state(self, state: Sequence[complex], wire_order: Wires): # This also covers statistics for mid-circuit measurements manipulated using # arithmetic operators # we use ``wires`` instead of ``op`` because the observable was # already applied to the state with qml.queuing.QueuingManager.stop_recording(): prob = qml.probs(wires=self.wires).process_state(state=state, wire_order=wire_order) # In case of broadcasting, `prob` has two axes and these are a matrix-vector products return self._calculate_variance(prob)
[docs] def process_counts(self, counts: dict, wire_order: Wires): with qml.QueuingManager.stop_recording(): probs = qml.probs(wires=self.wires).process_counts(counts=counts, wire_order=wire_order) return self._calculate_variance(probs)
def _calculate_variance(self, probabilities): """ Calculate the variance of a set of probabilities. Args: probabilities (array): the probabilities of collapsing to eigen states """ eigvals = qml.math.asarray(self.eigvals(), dtype="float64") return, (eigvals**2)) -, eigvals) ** 2