Source code for pennylane.measurements.shots

# Copyright 2018-2023 Xanadu Quantum Technologies Inc.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
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#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

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"""This module contains the Shots class to hold shot-related information."""
from collections.abc import Sequence

# pylint:disable=inconsistent-return-statements
from typing import NamedTuple


[docs]class ShotCopies(NamedTuple): """A namedtuple that represents a shot quantity being repeated some number of times. For example, ``ShotCopies(10 shots x 2)`` indicates two executions with 10 shots each for 20 shots total. """ shots: int copies: int def __str__(self): """The string representation of the class""" return f"{self.shots} shots{' x '+str(self.copies) if self.copies > 1 else ''}" def __repr__(self): """The representation of the class""" return f"ShotCopies({self.shots} shots x {self.copies})"
def valid_int(s): """Returns True if s is a positive integer.""" return isinstance(s, int) and s > 0 def valid_tuple(s): """Returns True if s is a tuple of the form (shots, copies).""" return isinstance(s, Sequence) and len(s) == 2 and valid_int(s[0]) and valid_int(s[1])
[docs]class Shots: """ A data class that stores shot information. Args: shots (Union[None, int, Sequence[int, Tuple[int, int]]]): Raw shot information Defining shots enables users to specify circuit executions, and the Shots class standardizes the internal representation of shots. There are three ways to specify shot values: * The value ``None`` * A positive integer * A sequence consisting of either positive integers or a tuple-pair of positive integers of the form ``(shots, copies)`` The tuple-pair of the form ``(shots, copies)`` is represented internally by a NamedTuple called :class:`~ShotCopies`. The first value is the number of shots to execute, and the second value is the number of times to repeat a circuit with that number of shots. The ``Shots`` class exposes two properties: * ``total_shots``, the total number of shots to be executed * ``shot_vector``, the tuple of :class:`~ShotCopies` to be executed Instances of this class are static. If an instance is passed to the constructor, that same instance is returned. If an instance is constructed with a ``None`` value, ``total_shots`` will be ``None``. This indicates analytic execution. A ``Shots`` object created with a ``None`` value is Falsy, while any other value results in a Truthy object: >>> bool(Shots(None)), bool(Shots(1)) (False, True) **Examples** Example constructing a Shots instance with ``None``: >>> shots = Shots(None) >>> shots.total_shots, shots.shot_vector (None, ()) Example constructing a Shots instance with an int: >>> shots = Shots(100) >>> shots.total_shots, shots.shot_vector (100, (ShotCopies(100 shots),)) Example constructing a Shots instance with another instance: >>> shots = Shots(100) >>> Shots(shots) is shots True Example constructing a Shots instance with a sequence of ints: >>> shots = Shots([100, 200]) >>> shots.total_shots, shots.shot_vector (300, (ShotCopies(100 shots x 1), ShotCopies(200 shots x 1))) Example constructing a Shots instance with a sequence of tuple-pairs: >>> shots = Shots(((100, 3), (200, 4),)) >>> shots.total_shots, shots.shot_vector (1100, (ShotCopies(100 shots x 3), ShotCopies(200 shots x 4))) Example constructing a Shots instance with a sequence of both ints and tuple-pairs. Note that the first stand-alone ``100`` gets absorbed into the subsequent tuple because the shot value matches: >>> shots = Shots((10, 100, (100, 3), (200, 4),)) >>> shots.total_shots, shots.shot_vector (1210, (ShotCopies(10 shots x 1), ShotCopies(100 shots x 4), ShotCopies(200 shots x 4))) Example constructing a Shots instance by multiplying an existing one by an int or float: >>> Shots(100) * 2 Shots(total_shots=200, shot_vector=(ShotCopies(200 shots x 1),)) >>> Shots([7, (100, 2)]) * 1.5 Shots(total_shots=310, shot_vector=(ShotCopies(10 shots x 1), ShotCopies(150 shots x 2))) One should also note that specifying a single tuple of length 2 is considered two different shot values, and *not* a tuple-pair representing shots and copies to avoid special behaviour depending on the iterable type: >>> shots = Shots((100, 2)) >>> shots.total_shots, shots.shot_vector (102, (ShotCopies(100 shots x 1), ShotCopies(2 shots x 1))) >>> shots = Shots(((100, 2),)) >>> shots.total_shots, shots.shot_vector (200, (ShotCopies(100 shots x 2),)) """ total_shots: int = None """The total number of shots to be executed.""" shot_vector: tuple[ShotCopies] = None """The tuple of :class:`~ShotCopies` to be executed. Each element is of the form ``(shots, copies)``.""" _SHOT_ERROR = ValueError( "Shots must be a single positive integer, a tuple pair of the form (shots, copies), or a sequence of these types." ) _frozen = False def __new__(cls, shots=None): return shots if isinstance(shots, cls) else object.__new__(cls) def __setattr__(self, name, value): if self._frozen: raise AttributeError( "Shots is an immutable class. Consider creating a new instance if you need different shot values." ) return super().__setattr__(name, value) def __init__(self, shots=None): if shots is None: self.total_shots = None self.shot_vector = () elif isinstance(shots, int): if shots < 1: raise self._SHOT_ERROR self.total_shots = shots self.shot_vector = (ShotCopies(shots, 1),) elif isinstance(shots, Sequence): if not all(valid_int(s) or valid_tuple(s) for s in shots): raise self._SHOT_ERROR self.__all_tuple_init__([s if isinstance(s, Sequence) else (s, 1) for s in shots]) elif isinstance(shots, self.__class__): return # self already _is_ shots as defined by __new__ else: raise self._SHOT_ERROR self._frozen = True def __copy__(self): return self def __deepcopy__(self, memo): memo[id(self)] = self return self def __str__(self): """The string representation of the class""" if not self.has_partitioned_shots: return f"Shots(total={self.total_shots})" shot_copy_str = ", ".join([str(sc) for sc in self.shot_vector]) or None return f"Shots(total={self.total_shots}, vector=[{shot_copy_str}])" def __repr__(self): """The representation of the class""" return f"Shots(total_shots={self.total_shots}, shot_vector={self.shot_vector})" def __eq__(self, other): """Equality between Shot instances.""" return ( isinstance(other, Shots) and self.total_shots == other.total_shots and self.shot_vector == other.shot_vector ) def __hash__(self): """Hash for a given Shot instance.""" return hash(self.shot_vector) def __iter__(self): for shot_copy in self.shot_vector: for _ in range(shot_copy.copies): yield shot_copy.shots def __all_tuple_init__(self, shots: Sequence[tuple]): res = [] total_shots = 0 current_shots, current_copies = shots[0] for s in shots[1:]: if s[0] == current_shots: current_copies += s[1] else: res.append(ShotCopies(current_shots, current_copies)) total_shots += current_shots * current_copies current_shots, current_copies = s self.shot_vector = tuple(res + [ShotCopies(current_shots, current_copies)]) self.total_shots = total_shots + current_shots * current_copies def __bool__(self): return self.total_shots is not None def __mul__(self, scalar): if not isinstance(scalar, (int, float)): raise TypeError("Can't multiply Shots with non-integer or float type.") if self.total_shots is None: return self scaled_shot_vector = tuple( ShotCopies(int(i.shots * scalar), i.copies) for i in self.shot_vector ) return self.__class__(scaled_shot_vector) def __rmul__(self, scalar): return self.__mul__(scalar) @property def has_partitioned_shots(self): """ Evaluates to True if this instance represents either multiple shot quantities, or the same shot quantity repeated multiple times. Returns: bool: whether shots are partitioned """ if not self: return False return len(self.shot_vector) > 1 or self.shot_vector[0].copies > 1 @property def num_copies(self): """The total number of copies of any shot quantity.""" return sum(s.copies for s in self.shot_vector)
[docs] def bins(self): """ Yields: tuple: A tuple containing the lower and upper bounds for each shot quantity in shot_vector. Example: >>> shots = Shots((1, 1, 2, 3)) >>> list(shots.bins()) [(0,1), (1,2), (2,4), (4,7)] """ lower_bound = 0 for sc in self.shot_vector: for _ in range(sc.copies): upper_bound = lower_bound + sc.shots yield lower_bound, upper_bound lower_bound = upper_bound